A method in which multiple processors are used to speed up the processing is called parallel processing. These processors work simultaneously to complete a program. Parallel processing divides a task into multiple smaller tasks. Each processor solves the smaller task independently at the same time. Supercomputers use parallel processing in complex applications like weather forecasting etc.
The two types of parallel processing are as follows:
Single Instruction Multiple Data (SMID): This method executes the same instruction on many data values simultaneously.
Multiple Instruction/Multiple Data (MIMD): This method connects a number of processors that run different programs or parts of a program on different sets of data.
Computer is an electronic device that works with digital signals. i.e. ON and OFF. The digit 0 represent OFF and 1 represents ON. Computer works in binary system. This system consists of two digits 0 and I called bits. Bit stands for binary digit. It is the smallest unit of data that can be represented in computer. A collection of eight bits is called byte. One byte can represent 256 different characters.
Different combinations of O and 1 are used to represent different characters. Different coding schemes are used to represent different characters.
Popular coding schemes are as follows:
ASCII: ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is an 8-bit code. It is the most popular coding scheme for data representation. It is mostly used in personal computers. It can represent 256 characters.
EBCDIC: EBCDIC stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. It is an 8-bit code. It is normally used in mainframe computers. It can represent 256 characters.