Geography is the science which deals with the earth, its form and shape, its regions, climates, seasons, products, people, and trade. It is a very useful study. It helps us to know where particular things grow and why, which countries manufacture which things, and what special advantages they possess. We know the great markets of the world, also. We know the mineral and vegetable products of the country, and how they are and may be carried to other countries.
England has coal and iron mines very near each other, and hence, is in a very favourable condition for starting mills and factories. Pakistan is a country of great rivers and forests, and has a rich soil, and is, therefore, naturally best suited for, agriculture. A knowledge of the natural resources of a country helps its people to develop their industries on lines, in which they have greater chances of success. The material prosperity and economic wellbeing of a nation is greatly promoted by a right knowledge of their geographical conditions. Physical surroundings have great influence of the character, and hence the history of people. Pakistan is fertile. [the_ad id=”17141″]In old days, the people had plenty to live upon, they had, therefore, more leisure, and led contented lives. They developed great philosophic and religious thoughts in retirement, because, being free from the worry and cares of earning their living, they turned their energies inwards. England has a great naval power, and produces very good sailors, because it is near the sea. The coast of Europe is indented, but that of Africa is not, hence the former has several ports which help in the growth of trade, while the latter has not that advantage. A country like Pakistan which is shut in by high mountains becomes stagnant, while the one like England, which is over and can have intercourse with other countries, is prosperous. Nepal is poor, because it is isolated from other countries.
The climate of a place depends on its geographical situation, and it has a great influence on the character of its inhabitants. People of hot countries are lazy and indolent, and those of cold countries. active and energetic.
A knowledge of commercial geography which tells of the principal products of different countries, of the principal world markets and trade centres, of the means of transport, ports and trade routes, is indispensable for trade, and upon the growth of trade depends the prosperity of the various nations.